Achilles tendon rupture. As we get older the Achilles tendon looses vascularity and can weaken with age and make it prone to rupture. However it is important to note that chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, steroid use, and antibiotic use can also increase the risk of rupture. Rupture usually occurs about 2cm from the insertion point in the calcaneous or heel. This is called the water shed area and is thought to be the weakest point of the tendon. The tendon more commonly completely ruptures than partially tears. Most ruptures occur in the occasional athlete during recreation activities. However, ruptures can be caused by sudden forceful movements that may over stretch the tendon.
Achilles tendonitis. This condition is caused from inflammation of the Achilles tendon usually caused from an increase in activity and repetitive over-use. Symptoms include a gradual onset of pain. Pain at the beginning of an exercise which then fades as the exercise progresses. Pain ceases with rest and there is tenderness on palpation
Achilles tendonosis. This is the degeneration of the tendon caused by chronic unresolved inflammation (Achilles tendonitis) where the degenerative tendon fibers become less organized and more fibrous which can lead to tears in the tendon or complete rupture.